What was going on in the nation? What was going on in society?

(list of group participants)

Group 1

  1. Reagan/Bush era

  2. Emergence of a third party (+) system, (e.g., Rainbow coalition, Ross Perot)

  3. Changes in Europe and China, globalization begins

  4. Decade for women

  5. Emergence of MACs (Window, icon concept) vs. DOS systems

  6. National economy not good: high unemployment, high interest rates

  7. Michigan economy good

  8. High school enrollments bottomed out

  9. Olympics in Seoul

  10. Earthquake in San Francisco

  11. Drought/heat wave in the Midwest

  12. Blanchard was Governor

  13. Focus on "outcomes assessment" in graduate programs

  14. Terrorism

  15. Baby Boomers: focus on health and exercise

  16. Few involved in "risky" investments, (e.g., stock market)

  17. Infant mortality an issue/other poverty-related issues

  18. Decline in state appropriations to education

Group 2

  1. Iran contra affair

  2. Reagan administration

  3. Bush wins

  4. Shoulder pads were in

  5. Conspicuous consumption

  6. Mergers-conglomerates

  7. Layoffs

  8. Interest rates falling

  9. Insecurity: corporate loyalty disappears for both employees and companies

  10. Telemarketing becomes more pervasive and invasive

  11. More distrust of government

  12. Mainframes: few PCs, little networking

  13. Not much computerization for end-users, things like touch-tone registration

Group 3

  1. More diversity

  2. Outsourcing of services

  3. Globalization: outsourcing, down-sizing

  4. Federal ADA, AIDS guidelines, Drug Free Workplace requirements

Group 4

  1. High unemployment

  2. Global recognition

  3. Focus on accountability in K-12 education

  4. Computer literacy not an expectation, no idea of a Web, primitive software, etc.

  5. 1,000 Points of Light, individual contribution to society

  6. TRA, foreign competition

  7. Break up of the Soviet Union, Glasnost

  8. Excellent enrollment in community colleges

  9. Power of economic forces

  10. Down-sizing, doing more with less

  11. Less invasive media

Group 5

  1. Economic development major topic: downsizing or right-sizing, unemployment and interest rates high, beginning of recovery, tremendous increase in federally funded training programs

  2. Environmental issues of greater concern

  3. Actor as Republican president, Democratically controlled congress

  4. Push for greater ADA rights

  5. Health care issues are major societal concern: HMOs take hold, HIV/AIDS guidelines created

  6. Drug free work place takes hold: leads to employee and student assistance programs

Group 6

  1. Time shift: VCRs provided the ability to record events for later viewing

  2. Personal computers were low tech

  3. IRAN Contra affair

  4. Economy was recovering

  5. Election year, Dukakis versus Bush

  6. Fortune 500 companies prevalent

  7. Managed care begins

  8. Auto industry revival

  9. Gary Hart scandal: public offices become "public", no longer behind closed doors

  10. Deming: quality management, industrial restructuring

  11. Job uncertainty- downsizing

  12. More people on welfare

  13. James Blanchard, Governor

  14. Olympic year

  15. Pagers in

  16. Mainframe systems on campus used for student reporting

  17. Nation at risk initiative

  18. Decline of unions

  19. Media influence: everything public, see example #9

Group 7

  1. Los Angeles Earthquake

  2. Olympics in LA

  3. Presidential election: Bush elected president

  4. High unemployment

  5. Less computer usage

  6. Dan Quayle

  7. High inflation

  8. No large casinos

  9. Blanchard governor

  10. Smart Card (Michigan Opportunity Card)

  11. No Internet

  12. Recorders at meetings did not have laptops

  13. No cell phones

  14. S&L scandals

  15. Enrollments possibly higher

  16. Auto industry downsizing

  17. Recession

How did these events affect student services in Michigan community colleges?

Group 1

  1. Technology started to emerge on campuses (some PCs)

  2. Two and four-year enrollments bottomed out.

  3. JTPA was BIG! (Block Grants)

  4. Re-training became a greater part of our mission (linkages with business and industry)

  5. "Skill Sets vs. Diplomas"

  6. Accountability (from and to EVERYONE!)

  7. Campuses became more diverse

  8. More part-time /adjunct staff

  9. More dependence on information integration

  10. Technology created a need for more professional development/training

  11. Push for strategic plans

  12. "Quality" started to emerge as a focus

  13. More single parents (funding for at "risk populations" in general)

  14. Students with disabilities more visible

  15. Soft dollars for staff (specialized /focused areas)

  16. Student services was viewed as "subservient" (not valued professionally)

Group 2

  1. Community college growth led to an increase in demand for services

  2. Job training, TRAs

  3. Higher unemployment than today

  4. Increase in numbers of non-traditional students

  5. Career counseling, job placement issues

  6. Increased accountability

  7. Age sensitivity as numbers of elderly increased

  8. Team-based decision making, management gurus, Megatrends, etc.

  9. Title III grant to improve academic advising

  10. Little focus on enrollment, less focus on enrollment management

  11. Started to focus on customer services

  12. End of first wave of retirements of people who started at our colleges in the 60s

  13. Started to build partnerships with K-12, tech-prep, outside agencies

  14. Grants available for JTPA, sex equity, TRA

  15. Less sensitivity to ADA issues

  16. Student loans increased as a proportion of student aid

Group 3

  1. Retraining provided greater sense of mission and accountability

  2. Emphasis on skill delivery rather than degrees

Group 4

  1. Increased enrollment

  2. Funding cutbacks

  3. TRA funds available

  4. Difficult to deliver services

  5. Millage issues

  6. Technology confusion: dual systems on paper and computer, computer problems

  7. Good enrollment in occupational programs

  8. Unaware of power and use of computers

  9. Immigration: need to recognize diversity

  10. Poor made to feel responsible for their plight

  11. Assessment for course placement

Group 5

  1. College positions were beginning to open up

  2. Growth of student enrollment

  3. Increased challenges of dealing with an increase in students and addressing their needs

  4. Technology: what to purchase, how do we implement (training and use of); more employees and students are on-line, led to a warehouse of information and issues of what to do with it

  5. Increase in industry partnerships: on-site location of student services provided for an increase in customized industry training

  6. Increase in numbers of non-traditional students

Group 6

  1. Limited access to PCs/resources per individuals

  2. Suspicious of technology and technology integration

  3. Beginning of student assessment and accountability for services

  4. No worries re: numbers and recruiting, students were plentiful

  5. Career decision-making courses evolved

  6. Business, industry and corporate continuing education courses first developed

  7. Enrollment growth

  8. Resource reduction, do more with less resources and staff

  9. State aid decrease, tuition increase

  10. Grants to support business/industry available

  11. Tuition reimbursement from industry

  12. Internal training

  13. Centralized department of education

Group 7

  1. Student demands for services increasing

  2. Programming classes in high demand

  3. Working with unemployed, retraining

  4. Social services recipients encouraged to be in college

  5. Budgets were improving

  6. Financial aid was easier to get

  7. Accountability standards initiated

  8. Support for disabled services enhanced

  9. At Risk program initiated

  10. Tuition Incentive Program begun

  11. Building expansion

  12. Higher % of full-time students compared to today

  13. Native American student population increased

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