The ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education abstracts and indexes the current literature on higher education for the National Institute of Education's monthly bibliographic journal Resources in Education. Most of these publications are available through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDRS). For publications cited in this list of references that are available from EDRS, ordering number and price are included. Readers who wish to order a publication should write to the ERIC Document Reproduction Service, 3900 Wheeler Avenue, Alexandria, Virginia 22304. When ordering, please specify the document number. Documents are available as noted in microfiche (MF) and paper copy (PC). Because prices are subject to change, it is advisable to check the latest issue of Resources in Education for current cost based on the number of pages in the publication.

Ackoff, Russel L. 1970. Concept of Corporate Planning. New York: Wiley-Interscience.

----- . 1974. Redesigning the Future. New York: Wiley-Interscience.

----- . 1978. The Art of Problem Solving. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Adams, Charles F., and Mecca, Thomas V. 1980. "Occupational Education: Some Possible Futures." World Future Society Bulletin 14:11-18.

Adams, C. R.; Hawkins, R. L.; and Schroeder, R. G. 1978. A Study of Cost Analysis in Higher Education, vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education.

Adams, L. A. 1980. "Delphi Forecasting: Future Issues in Grievance Arbitration." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 18(2): 151-60.

Aguilar, F. J. 1967. Scanning the Business Environment. New York: Macmillan.

Albert, Kenneth K., ed. 1983. The Strategic Management Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Allen, T. Harrell. Summer 1978. "Cross-Impact Analysis: A Technique for Managing Interdisciplinary Research." SRA Journal: 11-18.

Alm, Kent G.; Buhler-Miko, Marina; and Smith, Kurt B. 1978. A Future Creating Paradigm: A Guide to Long-Range Planning for the Future. Washington, D.C.: American Association of State Colleges and Universities.

Anderson, Richard E. 1978. "A Financial and Environmental Analysis of Strategic Policy Change at Small Private Colleges." Journal of Higher Education 49(1): 30-46.

Ansoff, H. Igor. 1975. "Managing Strategic Surprise by Response to Weak Signals." California Management Review, 18(2): 2133.

Armstrong, J. Scott. 1978. Long-Range Forecasting. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Astin, Alexander W.; Green, Kenneth C.; Corn, William S.; and Maier, Mary Jane. 1984. The American Freshman: National Norms for Fall 1984. Annual. Los Angeles: UCLA/ACE.

Baier, Kurt, and Rescher, Nicholas, eds. 1969. Utilities and the Future: The Impact of Technological Change on American Values. New York: Free Press.

Baker, Michael. July 1980. "Strategic Long-Range Planning for Universities." Mimeographed. Pittsburgh: Carnegie-Mellon University. ED 189 964. 15 pp. MF-$1.19; PC-$3.74.

Balderston, Frederick. 1974. Managing Today's University. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Baldridge, J. Victor, and Okimi, Patricia H. October 1982. "Strategic Planning in Higher Education: New Tool--Or New Gimmick?" AAHE Bulletin 35(2): 6, 15-18.

Ball, Ben C., Jr., and Lorange, Peter. 1979. "Managing Your Strategic Responsiveness to the Environment." Managerial Planning 28(3): 3-27.

Bardach, Eugene. 1977. The Implementation Game. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Blackman, A. Wade, Jr. 1973. "A Cross-Impact Model Applicable to Forecasts for Long-Range Planning." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 5(3): 233-42.

Boucher, Wayne I. 1972. Report on a Hypothetical Focused Planning Effort. Glastonburg, Conn.: The Futures Group.

----- . 1978. "Finding the Future: A Practical Guide for Perplexed Managers." MBA Magazine 12(7): 48-57.

----- . 1984. Scenarios and Scenario-Writing. Harbor City, Calif.: ICS Group.

Boucher, Wayne I., and Neufeld, William. 1981. Projections for the U.S. Consumer Finance lndustry to the Year 2000. Report R-7. Los Angeles: Center for Futures Research, University of Southern California.

Boucher, Wayne I., and Ralston, A. 1983. Futures for the U.S. Property/Casualty Insurance Industry. Report R-11. Los Angeles: Center for Futures Research, University of Southern California.

Bourgeois, L. J., III. 1980. "Strategy and Environment: A Conceptual Integration." Academy of Management Review, 5(1): 25-39.

Bowen, Howard. 1982. The State of the Nation and the Agenda for Higher Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bowman, Jim; Dede, Chris; and Kierstead, Fred. November/December 1977. "Educational Futures: A Reconstructionist Approach." World Future Society Bulletin 11: 14-15.

Bracker, Jeffrey. 1980. "The Historical Development of the Strategic Management Concept." Academy of Management Review, 5(2): 1-24.

Braudel, Fernand. 1972. The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II. Translated by Sian Reynolds. New York: Harper & Row.

Bright, James R. 1978. Practical Technology Forecasting Concepts and Exercises. Austin, Texas: Industrial Management Center.

Buhler-Miko, Marina. 1981. "Future Planning and the Sense of Community in Universities." In The Administrator's Role in Effective Teaching, edited by Alan Guskin. New Directions for Teaching and Learning No. 5. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education. 1980. Three Thousand Futures. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. ED 183 076. 175 pp. MF-$1.19; PC not available EDRS.

Cetron, Marvin J. 1969. Technological Forecasting: A Practical Approach. New York: Technology Forecasting Institute.

Chaffin, W. W., and Talley, W. 1980. "Individual Stability in Delphi Studies." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 16(1): 67-73.

Coates, Joseph F. 1975. "Review of Sackman Report." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 7(2): 193-94.

Collazo, A. January 1977. "Forecasting Future Trends in Education. " Educational Leadership 34: 298 +.

Collier, Douglas. September 1980. "Strategic Planning for Colleges and Universities: The Strategic Academic Unit Approach." Mimeographed. Boulder, Colo.: National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.

----- . February 1981. "The Applicability of the Strategic Planning Concept to Colleges and Universities." Mimeographed. Boulder, Colo.: National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.

Cooper, R. L. 1978. Strategic Policy Planning: A Guide for College and University Administrators. Littleton, Colo.: The Ireland Educational Corporation.

Cope, Robert G. 1981a. "Providing Assessments of the Environment for Strategic Planning." In Evaluation of Management and Planning Systems, edited by N. Poulton. New Directions for Institutional Research No. 31. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

----- . 1981b. Strategic Planning, Management, and Decision Making. AAHE-ERIC Higher Education Research Report No. 9. Washington, D.C.: American Association for Higher Education. ED 217 825. 75 pp. MF-$1.19; PC-$7.24.

Cornish, Edward. 1977. The Study of the Future. Washington D.C.: World Future Society.

Cross, K. Patricia. September 1980. "Two Scenarios for High Education's Future." AAHE Bulletin 33(l): 1-16.

Crossland, Fred. July/August 1980. "Learning to Cope with a Downward Slope." Change 12: 18 +.

Cyert, Richard M. 1983. "Foreword." In Academic Strategy: The Management Revolution in American Higher Education by George Keller. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Cyphert, F. R., and Gant, W. L. 1971. "The Delphi Technique Case Study." Phi Delta Kappan 52 (5): 272-73.

Dalkey, Norman C. 1969. "An Experimental Study of Group Opinion: The Delphi Method." Futures 2(3).

De Jouvenel, Bertrand. 1967. The Art of Conjecture. New York: Basic Books.

Dodge, B. J., and Clark, R. E. 1977. "Research on the Delphi Technique." Educational Technology 17(4): 58-60.

Doyle, Peter, and Lynch, James. December 1976. "Long-Range Planning for Universities." Long-Range Planning 9: 39-46.

----- . 1979. "A Strategic Model for University Planning." Journal of the Operational Research Society 30(6): 603-9.

Dozier, John, et al. 1980. A Planning Manual for Colleges. Washington, D.C.: National Association of College and University Business Officers. ED 185 922. 123 pp. MF-$1.19; PC not available EDRS.

Dresch, S. P. 1975. "Demography, Technology, and Higher Education: Toward a Formal Model of Education Adaptation." Journal of Political Economy 83(3): 535-69.

Drucker, Peter. 1954. The Practice of Management. New York: Harper & Row.

----- . 1974. Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices. New York: Harper & Row.

----- . 1980. Managing in Turbulent Times. New York: Harper & Row.

Edrich, H. January 1980. "Keeping a Weather Eye on the Future." Planning Reveiw, 8: 11-14.

Ellison, Nolan. September 1977. "Strategic Planning." Community and Junior College Journal 48: 32-35.

Enzer, Selwyn. 1970. "A Case Study Using Forecasting as a Decision-Making Aid." Futures 2(4): 341-62.

----- . 1971. "Delphi and Cross-impact Techniques: An Effective Combination for Systematic Futures Analysis." Futures 3(1): 48-61.

----- . 1977. "Beyond Bounded Solutions." Educational Research Quarterly 1(4): 22-33.

----- . 1980a. "INTERAX-An Interactive Model for Studying Future Business Environments: Part 1." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 17 (2): 141-59.

----- . 1980b. "INTERAX-An Interactive Model for Studying Future Business Environments: Part 2." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 17(3): 211-42.

----- . 1981. "Exploring Long-Term Business Climates and Strategies with INTERAX." Futures 13(6): 468-82.

----- . 1983. "New Directions in Futures Methodology." In Applying Methods and Techniques of Futures Research, edited by James L. Morrison, William L. Renfro, and Wayne I. Boucher. New Directions for Institutional Research No. 39. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Eppink, D. J. 1981. "Futures Research: Is It Used? Long-Range Planning 14(2): 33-36.

Escher, Firmin. 1976. "College of St. Benedict: A Planning Model That Works." In A Comprehensive Approach to Institutional Development, edited by William Bergquist and William Shoemaker. New Directions for Higher Education No. 15. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Fahey, Liam; King, William R.; and Narayanan, Vadake K. 1981. "Environmental Scanning and Forecasting in Strategic Planning: The State of the Art." Long-Range Planning 14(1): 32-39.

Fendt, Paul F. 1978. "Alternative Futures for Adult and Continuing Education in North Carolina: A Delphi Futures Planning Study." Paper presented at the first meeting of the Education Section of the World Future Society, October, Houston, Texas. ED 162 545. 20 pp. MF-$1.19; PC-$3.74.

Fincher, Cameron. 1982. "What Is Strategic Planning?" Research in Higher Education 16(4): 373-76.

Frances, Carol. July/August 1980a. "Apocalyptic vs. Strategic Planning." Change 12: 19-44.

----- . 1980b. College Enrollment Trends: Testing the Conventional Wisdom against the Facts. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education.

Gaither, Gerald. 1977. "The Imperative to Plan in Higher Education." North Central Association Quarterly 52(2): 347-55.

Gideonse, Hendrik D. 1976. "The Contribution of the Futures Perspective to Management: A Case Study." Educational Planning 2(3): 21-34.

Glover, R. H., and Holmes, J. 1983. "Assessing the External Environment." In Using Research for Strategic Planning, edited by Norman P. Uhl. New Directions for Institutional Research No. 37. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Gordon, T. J. 1968. "New Approaches to Delphi." In Technological Forecasting for Industry and Government, edited by J. R. Bright. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

----- . 1972. "The Current Methods of Futures Research." In The Futurists, edited by Alvin Toffler. New York: Random House.

Gordon, T. J., and Hayward, J. 1968. "Initial Experiments with the Cross-Impact Matrix Method of Forecasting." Futures 6(2): 100-16.

Gordon, T. J., and Helmer, Olaf. 1964. Report on a Long-Range Forecasting Study. P-2982. Santa Monica, Calif.: The Rand Corporation.

Granger, C. H. May/June 1964. "The Hierarchy of Objectives." Harvard Business Review 42: 63-74.

Green, John L., Jr. 1976. "Relationship of Strategic Planning and Budgeting to Financial Difficulty and Organizational Climate in Higher Education." Ph.D. dissertation, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

Green, John L.; Nayyar, Devendra; and Ruch, Richard. 1979. Strategic Planning and Budgeting for Higher Education. La Jolla, Calif.: J. L. Green & Associates.

Groff, Warren. January 1981a. "Key External Data Required in Strategic Decision Making: A New Role for Management Systems." Cause/Effect 4: 28-34.

----- . January/February 1981b. "Market Analysis as an Integral Component of Comprehensive Institutional Planning." The Snowmass Advisory 2: 1-1 1.

----- . 1981c. "Market Analysis: What Is It? How Does It Fit into Comprehensive Institutional Planning?" Conference paper prepared for the National Center for Research in Vocational Education. ED 201 343. 56 pp. MF-$1.19; PC-$7.24.

Hackett, E. Raymond, and Morrison, James L. 1981. "Policy Impact Analysis: An Approach to Planning and Budgeting in Higher Education." In Higher Education Planning and Budgeting: Ideas for the 80's, edited by M. E. Christal. Boulder, Colo.: National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.

Halstead, Kent. 1974. Statewide Planning in Higher Education. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. ED 096 914. 836 pp. MF-$2.13; PC-$71.90.

Hartman, A. 1981. "Reaching Consensus Using the Delphi Technique." Educational Leadership 38(6): 495-97.

Hawken, P.; Ogilvy, J.; and Schwartz, P. 1982. Seven Tomorrows. New York: Bantam.

Hearn, James C., and Heydinger, Richird B. In press. "Scanning the External Environment of a University: Objectives, Constraints, and Possibilities." Journal of Higher Education.

Hegarty, W. H. September 1981. "Strategic Planning in the 1980s: Coping with Complex External Forces." Planning Review 9: 8-12.

Helmer, Olaf. 1966. Social Technology. New York: Basic Books.

----- . 1975. "Foreword." In The Delphi Method: Techniques and Applications, edited by H. Linstone and M. Turoff. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.

----- . 1983. Looking Forward: A Guide to Futures Research. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Henckley, Stephen P., and Yates, James R. 1974. Futurism in Education: Methodologies. Berkeley, Calif.: McCutchiin Publishing Corp.

Henton, Douglas C.; Chmura, Thomas J.; and Renfro, William L. 1984. State Government Issues for Business. Business Intelligence Program, SRI International.

Heydinger, Richard B. 1983. "The Development of Institutional Research and Planning: Is Futurism the Next Step?" In Applying Methods and Techniques of Futures Research, edited by James L. Morrison, William L. Renfro, and Wayne I. Boucher. New Directions for Institutional Research No. 39. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Heydinger, Richard B., and Zentner, Rene D. 1983. "Multiple Scenario Analysis as a Tool for Introducing Uncertainty into the Planning Process." In Applying Methods and Techniques of Futures Research, edited by James L. Morrison, William L. Renfro, and Wayne I. Boucher. New Directions for Institutional Research No. 39. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Hofer, Charles W. Spring/Summer 1976. "Research on Strategic Planning: A Survey of Past Studies and Suggestions for Future Efforts." Journal of Business and Economics 28: 261-86.

Hofer, Charles W., and Schendel, Dan. 1978. Strategy Formulation: Analytical Concepts. St. Paul, Minn.: West Publishing Co.

Hollowood, James R. 1979. College and University Strategic Planning: A Methodological Approach. Cambridge, Mass.: Arthur D. Little. ED 181 965. 34 pp. MF-$1.19; PC-$5.49.

Horner, David G. 1979. "Strategic Planning for Higher Education." In Management Focus. San Francisco: Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co.

Huckfeldt, V. 1972. A Forecast of Changes in Postsecondary Education. Boulder, Colo.: Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education. ED 074 919. 215 pp. MF-$1.19; PC-$18.51.

Huckfeldt, V., and Judd, R. C. 1975. Methods for Large-Scale Delphi Studies. Boulder, Colo.: National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.

Hudspeth, D. R. 1970. A Long-Range Planning Tool for Education: The Focus Delphi. Syracuse: Syracuse University Research Institute.

Hughes, C. L. 1965. Goal Setting. New York: AMACOM.

Jamison, David, and Warren, James. 1980. "Forces and Trends Affecting the Future: 1980-1990." Paper read at the American Society for Training and Development National Conference, April 28, Anaheim, California.

Jantsch, E. 1967. Technological Forecasting in Perspective. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Jedamus, Paul, and Peterson, Marvin W. 1980. Improving Academic Management. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Jones, Martin V. 197 1. A Technology Assessment Methodology: Some Basic Propositions. Washington, D.C.: The MITRE Corp.

Judd, R. C. 1972. "Delphi Applications for Decision Making." Planning and Changing 2(2): 151-56.

Judel, Robert C. July 1972. "Forecasting to Consensus Gathering: Delphi Grows Up to College Needs." College and University Business 53: 35-38 + .

Kahn, H.; Brown, W.; and Martel, L. 1976. The Next 200 Years. New York: William Morrow.

Kane, J. 1972. "A Primer for a New Cross-Impact Language--KSIM." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 4(2): 129-42.

Kast, F. Fall 1980. "Scanning the Future Environment: Social Indicators." California Management Review, 23: 22-32.

Kastens, Merritt L. 1976. Long-Range Planning for Your Business. New York: AMACOM.

Keller, George. 1983. Academic Strategy: The Management Revolution in American Higher Education. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

King, William R., and Cleland, David I. 1978. Strategic Planning and Policy. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.

Kirschling, W., and Huckfeldt, V. 1980. "Projecting Alternative Futures." In Improving Academic Management, edited b Paul Jedamus and Marvin Peterson. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Klein, H. E., and Linneman, R. 1981. "The Use of Scenarios in Corporate Planning-Eight Case Histories." Long-Range Planning 14(5): 69-77.

Klein, H. E., and Newman, W. H. July 1980. "How to Integrate New Environmental Forces into Strategic Planning." Management Review 69: 40-48.

Lindberg, R. A. 1979. Long-Range Planning. New York: American Management Association.

Linneman, R. E., and Klein, H. E. 1979. "The Use of Multiple Scenarios by U. S. Industrial Companies." Long-Range Planning 12(1): 83-90.

Linstone, Harold A. 1972. "Four American Futures: Reflections on the Role of Planning." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 4(1): 41-60.

----- . 1983. "Book Review." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 24(2): 178-79.

Linstone, Harold A., and Simmonds, W. H., eds. 1977. Futures Research: New Directions. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.

Linstone, H. A., and Turoff, M., eds. 1975. The Delphi Method: Techniques and Applications. Reading Mass.: Addison-Wesley.

Locatis, C. N., and Gooler, D. D. Spring 1975. "Evaluating Second-order Consequences: Technology Assessment and Education." Review of Education Research 45: 327-53.

Lonsdale, Richard C. 1975. "Futures Research, Policy Research, and the Policy Sciences." Education and Urban Society 7(3): 246-93.

McLaughlin, Curtis P. Winter 1976. "Strategic Planning and Control in Small Health Organizations." Health Care Management Review 1: 45-53.

----- . Summer 1982. "Strategic Planning under Current Cutback Conditions." Health Care Management Review 7: 7-17.

----- . 1984. Leadership and Management in Academic Medical Centers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

McNamara, J. F. December 1971. "Mathematical Programming Models in Educational Planning." Review of Educational Research 41: 419-46.

MacNow, Glen. 18 May 1983. "Michigan to Study State Colleges; Some Could Shift." Chronicle of Higher Education 26(12): 1 +.

Manchester, William R. 1974. The Glory and the Dream: A Narrative History of America, 1932-1972. Boston: Little, Brown.

Mandel, T. F. 1983. "Futures Scenarios and Their Uses in Corporate Strategy." In The Strategic Management Handbook, edited by Kenneth K. Albert. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Marien, Michael, and Ziegler, Warren L., eds. 1972. The Potential of Educational Futures. Worthington, Ohio: Charles A. Jones (for the National Society for the Study of Education).

Martino, Joseph. 1970. "The Precision of Delphi Estimates." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 1(3): 293-99.

----- . 1972. An Introduction to Technological Forecasting. New York: Gordon & Breach.

Meadows, D. H.; Meadows, D. L.; Randers, J.; and Behrens, W., III. 1972. The Limits to Growth: A Report for the Club Rome's Project on the Predicament of Mankind. New York: Universe Books.

Mecca, Thomas V., and Adams, Charles F. May/June 1982. "ED QUEST: An Environmental Scanning Process for Education Agencies." World Future Society Bulletin 16: 7-12.

Merson, John, and Qualls, Robert. 1979. Strategic Planning Colleges and Universities. San Antonio: Trinity University Press.

Michael, D. 1973. On Learning to Plan and Planning to Learn San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Mitchell, R. B., Tydeman, J.; and Curnon, R. 1977. "Scenario Generation: Limitations and Developments in Cross-Impact Analysis." Futures 9: 205-15.

Morgan, A. W. 1983. "Cost as a Policy Issue: Lessons for the Health Care Sector." Journal of Higher Education 54(3): 279-93.

Morrison, James L. 1980. Annotated Bibliography of Literature on Social Indicators, Future Studies, and Policy Analysis. Technical Report 509. Alexandria, Va.: U. S. Army Research institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.

----- . 1981a. "Policy Impact Analysis: Implications for Use with Regional Data Bases on Social/Educational Indicators. In Visions, Issues, and Reality: A Changing South, edited by B. H. Willis. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: Southeastern Regional Council for Educational Improvement.

----- . 1981b. "Policy Impact Analysis: Rational Method to Respond to the Challenges Faced by Higher Education in the Eighties." Mimeographed. Paper presented at the Florida St University Institute for Studies in Higher Education, May 5. ED 201 292. 18 pp. MF-$1.19; PC-$3.74.

Morrison, James L.; Renfro, William L.; and Boucher, Wayne I., eds. 1983. Applying Methods and Techniques of Futures Research. New Directions for Institutional Research No. 39. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Munger, Frank J., and Morrison, James L. 198 1. "Designing a Regional Data Base for Futures Research in Educational Policy Making." University of North Carolina Newsletter 66(1): 14-15.

Nadelson, C. February 1983. "Emerging Issues for College Students in the 1980s." Journal of American College Health 31: 177-84.

Nair, Keshavan, and Sarin, Rakesh. 1979. "Generating Future Scenarios: Their Use in Strategic Planning." Long-Range Planning 12(3): 57-61.

Naisbitt, John. 1982. Megatrends. New York: Warner Books.

Nakamura, Robert T., and Smallwood, Frank. 1980. The Politics of Policy Implementation. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Nanus, B. 1982. "QUEST--Quick Environmental Scanning Technique." Long-Range Planning 15(2): 39-45.

Nash, Nicholas. 1978. "Delphi and Educational Research: A Review." ED 151 950. 55 pp. MF-$1.19; PC-$7.24.

Naylor, M. E. 1983. "Planning for Uncertainty-The Scenario-Strategy Matrix." In The Strategic Management Handbook, edited by Kenneth K. Albert. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Ogburn, William F. 1933. Recent Social Trends in the United States. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Parekh, Satish B. 1975. Long-Range Planning: An Institution-Wide Approach to Increasing Academic Vitality. New Rochelle, N.Y.: Change Magazine Press.

Patterson, Franklin. August 1977. "Institutional Planning in the Context of Change." Planning for Higher Education 6: 1-8.

Peters, Thomas J. Spring 1983. "We Underestimated: Excellent Companies Revisited." New Management: 6-11.

Peterson, Marvin W. 1980. "Analyzing Alternative Approaches to Planning." In Improving Academic Management, edited by Paul Jedamus and Marvin W. Peterson. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Pfnister, Allan O. 1976. Planning for Higher Education: Background and Application. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.

Pressman, Jeffrey, and Wildavsky, Aaron. 1973. Implementation. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Pyke, Donald L. June 1970. "A Practical Approach to Delphi." Futures 2(2): 143-52.

----- . 1971. "Mapping--A System Concept for Displaying Alternatives." Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 2(3-4): 311-20.

Quinn, James Brian. Summer 1980. "Managing Strategic Change." Sloan Management Review 21: 3-20.

Radford, K. J. 1980. Strategic Planning: An Analytical Approach. Reston, Va.: Reston Publishing Co.

Rasp, Alfred F. 1974. "Delphi: A Strategy for Decision Implication." Educational Planning 1(2): 42-47.

Reeves, G., and Jauch, L. R. 1971. "Curriculum Development through Delphi." Research in Higher Education 8(2): 157-68.

Renfro, W. L. August 1980a. "Congress, Corporations, and Crystal Balls: A Partnership for the Future?" Planning Review 8: 36-42.

----- . August 1980b. "Forecasting the Impact of Public Policies. Long-Range Planning 13: 80-89.

----- . 1980c. "Policy Impact Analysis: A Third Generation Approach." World Future Society Bulletin 14(4): 19-26.

----- . August 1982. "Managing the Issues of the 1980s." The Futurist 16: 61-66.

Renfro, William L., and Morrison, James L. October 1982. "Merging Two Futures Concepts: Application to Educational Policy." The Futurist 16: 54-56.

----- . 1983a. "Anticipating and Managing Change in Educational Organizations." Educational Leadership 41(1): 50-54.

----- . August 1983b. "Scanning the External Environment: Organizational Issues." In Applying Methods and Techniques of Futures Research, edited by James L. Morrison, William L. Renfro, and Wayne I. Boucher. New Directions for Institutional Research No. 39. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

----- . 1984. "Detecting Signals of Change: The Environmental Scanning Process." The Futurist 18(4): 49-56.

----- . 1985. The Delphi Decision Support System: Making the Technique Work. Washington, D.C.: Policy Analysis Co., Inc.

Rochberg, Richard; Gordon, Theodore J.; and Helmer, Olaf. 1970. The Use of Cross-Impact Matrices for Forecasting and Planning. Middletown, Conn.: Institute for the Future.

Rosove, Perry E. 1968. An Analysis of Possible Future Roles of Educators as Derived from a Contextual Map. Santa Monica, Calif.: System Development Corporation.

Rossman, M. H., and Bunning, R. L. 1978. "Knowledge and Skills for the Adult Educator: A Delphi Study." Adult Education 28(3): 139-55.

Rubin, Louis, ed. 1975. The Future of Education: Perspectives on Tomorrow's Schooling. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Sackman, H. 1975. Delphi Critique. Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath.

Salancik, J.R. 1973. "Assimilation of Aggregated Inputs into Delphi Forecasts: A Regression Analysis." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 5(3): 243-48.

Salancik, J. R.; Wenger W.; and Helfer, E. 1971. "The Construction of Delphi Event Statements." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 3(1): 65-73.

Schendel, Dan E., and Hatten, Kenneth J. 1972. "Strategic Planning and Higher Education: Some Concepts, Problems, and Opportunities." Reprint No. 442. Lafayette, Ind.: Institute for Research in the Behavioral, Economic, and Management Sciences, Purdue University.

Scigliano, John A. Winter 1981a. "Strengthening Hope and Purpose in Community College Futures through Strategic Marketing Planning." Community Services Catalyst 11: 16-21.

----- . 1981b. "A Systems Approach to the Design and Operation of Effective Marketing Programs." In Marketing the Program, edited by William A. Keim and Marybelle C. Keim. New Directions for Community Colleges No. 36. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Sheehan, Bernard. 1981. "Institutional Planning." In Higher Education Planning: A Bibliographic Handbook, edited by Kent Halstead. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Education.

Shirley, Robert. 1978. "Strategic Decision Making in Colleges and Universities." Paper presented at the annual forum of the Association for Institutional Research, May 21-25, Houston. ED 161 395. 17 pp. MF-$1.19; PC-$3.74.

----- . 1983. "Identifying the Levels of Strategy for a College or University." Long-Range Planning 16(3): 92-98.

Steiner, George A. 1969a. Strategic Factors in Business Success. New York: Macmillan.

----- . 1969b. Top Management Planning. New York: Macmillan.

----- . 1972. Pitfalls in Comprehensive Long-Range Planning. Oxford, Ohio: The Planning Executives Institute.

Stubbart, Charles. 1982. "Are Environmental Scanning Units Effective?" Long-Range Planning 15(3): 139-45.

Sullivan, William G., and Claycombe, W. Wayne. 1977. Fundamentals of Forecasting. Reston, Va.: Reston Publishing Co.

Teddlie, Charles; Hackett, E. Raymond; and Morrison, James L. 1982. "Developing Public Educational Policy through Policy-Impact Analysis." World Future Society Bulletin 16(6): 25-30.

Thomas, Raymond. October 1980. "Corporate Strategic Planning in a University." Long-Range Planning 13: 70-78.

Uhl, Norman P. 1970. "A Technique for Improving Communication within an Institution." In Institutional Research and Communication in Higher Education, edited by P. Wright. Tallahassee: Association of Institutional Research. ED 046 093. 289 pp. MF-$1.19; PC not available EDRS.

----- . 1980. "An Action-Oriented Technique for Improving a Campus Environment." In The Impact of Desegregation on Higher Education, edited by Jeff Smith. Durham, N.C.: North Carolina Central University Institute on Desegregation.

----- . ed. 1983a. Using Research for Strategic Planning. New Directions for Institutional Research No. 37. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

----- . 1983b. "Using the Delphi Technique in Institutional Planning." In Using Research for Strategic Planning, edited by Norman P. Uhl. New Directions for Institutional Research No. 37. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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