SCUP 2013 Southern Regional Conference
Through the Looking Glass: Visions and Planning for the Future of Higher Education
October 20-23, 2013
Georgia Tech Hotel and Conference Center
The higher education environment is changing at an unprecedented pace. This conference focuses on such questions as how do planners integrate academics, financial and physical parameters and interest when they are changing so quickly? What makes the campus of the future relevant in the age of online classes? What environmental and fiscal changes have to be made to accommodate changing models of learning? James Morrison and Wendy Newstetter's plenary session is titled "Distruptive Innovations in Higher Education: Implications for the 21st Century Campus."
July 27-29, 2012
Sheraton Centre Toronto
The annual conferences of the World Future Society have been described as "a world's fair of ideas" and "the greatest intellectual show on Earth." This conference brought together original thinkers and doers from many fields from some 80 countries around the world who discussed foresight techniques and global trends that are influencing the future. James Morrison presented "Disruptive Innovations" and "Accelerating the Paradigm Shift from Lecture-Centered to Technology-Enabled Active Learning Instructional Methods" at the conference.
AACC Presidents Academy Summer Institute
July 9-11, 2011
The Inn on Biltmore Estate
The AACC Presidents Academy Summer Institute (PASI) is an annual professional development program for CEOs/presidents of community colleges, providing intensive focus on current challenges, emerging trends, and opportunities unique to that position.
This institute focused on issues of critical importance to success in the role of the community college president, providing a mix of content experts and interaction around related case studies that result in the development/acquisition of ready-to-use skill sets that participants can apply back at their respective campuses. James Morrison presented a three-hour workshop titled, "What Lies Ahead for America's Community Colleges." The slides, presentation videos (Part I, Part II, Part III, and Part IV) are available as is the small group work product (flip chart notes).
Follow the Sun: Learning Futures Festival Online 2011
Beyond Distance Research Alliance and the Australian Digital Futures Institute
April 13-15, 2011
This non-stop global e-learning conference was a celebration of innovation in teaching and learning in higher education, and offered a chance for practitioners and policymakers to share their visions for the future. It began in Leichester, GB, on Wednesday, April 13th, and concluded in Australia 48 hours later. Participants from around the world had the opportunity to enjoy an online festival of papers, workshops, simulations, asynchronous events, and debates unconstrained by time and space. Donald Clark and James Morrison took the affirmative "Don't Lecture Me!" in debating Stephen Downes' "Long Live the Lecture" affirmation on North America Day 2.
The 1st International Conference of TQM in K-12 Education: Best International Practices
Ministry of Education
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
January 8-11, 2011
This conference offered a unique opportunity to be part of an important discourse that sought to reshape educational policy and programs, and help drive the rapid transformation of Saudi Education into one that produces empowered internationally competitive students. The event featured best international practices and most effective and expedient solutions to help with rapid transformation of the current educational K-12 offerings into a quality internationally competitive system. James Morrison’s keynote was titled “Implementing Technology-Enabled Active Learning Strategies in K-12 Education.”
E-Leader Singapore 2010
January 4-6, 2010
Organized by the Chinese American Scholars Association (CASA), this conference was designed to train tomorrow's leaders using unique intelligence exchanged across different areas of study. James Morrison's keynote presentation was titled, "Faculty Resistance to Technology-Enhanced Active Learning Strategies: What can E-Leaders do?"
ED-Media 2009-World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia $ Telecommunications
June 22-26, 2009
Organized by the Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), this conference served as a multi-disciplinary forum for the discussion and exchange of information on the research, development, and applications on all topics related to multimedia, hypermedia and telecommunications/distance education. James Morrison's invited presentations were titled, "Addressing the Problem of Faculty Resistance to Using Educational Media in Active Learning Instructional Strategies." and "What Editors Expect."
Inquiring Pedagogies (iPED) Research Network Conference 2008
Researching Academic Visions and Realities
September 7-9. 2008
The third iPED conference brought together a globally diverse community comprising academic developers and innovators, academic leaders and managers, as well as practice-based scholars and educational researchers to provide a forum for collaborative exploration and discourse on three key themes: Conceptions of academic and professional
leadership in a global higher education market, emergent pedagogies, and the transformative role of writing programs. James Morrison's keynote speech was titled "Speculations on the Future of Higher Education."
2008 TELECOOP Conference
April 15-18, 2008
Telecoop (Telecommunications Cooperative for Colorado) is a coalition of public and private colleges, universities, K-12 education, private sector business and public television stations dedicated to the enhancement of educational opportunities through distance learning. James L. Morrison’s keynote presentation was titled, “Education 2018.”
14-15 April 2008
Innovation 2008 brought together researchers, educators, and government and business leaders to formulate a vision for the future of education. The conference aims at a realistic appraisal of the present state of education and an assessment of what current realities indicate for the future, coupled with constructive and well-informed speculation about how change can be better managed to serve the need of students, educators, parents, industry, and society as a whole. James L. Morrison's presentation was titled "Towards a Practical and Sustainable Ed-Tech Paradigm: A Futurist's Perspective."
Texas Computer Education Association's 28th Annual Convention & Exposition
4-8 February 2008
The TCEA annual convention is one of the largest technology conferences in the nation and is recognized for its quality professional development opportunities and chances to network with other education professionals. James Morrison keynoted the opening symposium with a presentation titled, "Transforming Your Conference Presentation into a Journal Article."
League for Innovation's Conference on Information Technology (CIT)
22-25 October 2006
Charlotte Convention Center, Charlotte, North Carolina
CIT is the premier showcase of the use of information technology to improve teaching and learning, student services, and institutional management. Celebrating 22 years of excellence, CIT features a technologically sophisticated and topically diverse program that enables educators to explore and expand their use of technology. James Morrison's presentation, Transforming Your Presentation into a Journal Article, was designed to provide people who had not published previously, or who had not published much, pointers that could help them prepare their papers for publication consideration.
Second Annual Innovations in Instruction Conference
15 August 2005
Elon University, Elon, NC
The theme for this conference was Breaking New Ground. Participants explored the ways in which educators and learners were breaking new ground with instructional tools and techniques. Featured sessions included a panel of teaching and learning center directors who addressed new territories for innovative teaching and learning and speeches by Peter Felten (Are We There Yet?) and James Morrison (The University is Dead! Long Live the University!).
American Council on Education
2005 Council of Fellows Weekend
4-5 June 2005, Arlington, VA
The theme of this weekend conference for ACE Fellows was "Back to the Future: The Technologically Aware University." On Saturday, James Morrison gave the keynote speech, "The University is Dead! Long Live the University!" Chris Dede described the implications of neomillennial learning styles for higher education, and William Graves led a panel discussion around improving institutional performance through technology-enabled innovation. On Sunday, Ray Haas led a planning exercise on planning and plans for the technologically aware/competitive academic institution, Mark Luker described technology trends in higher education, and LaDon Jones and Ellen Dauwer led a panel discussion on student use of technology.
Anticipating the Future of Research, Education, and Extension Programs in Land-Grant Colleges and Universities
15-18 May 2005, Roanoke, VA
Sponsored by the Partnership Working Group and the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service
Hosted by Virginia Cooperative Extension
The objective of this conference was to assist leaders in land grant colleges and universities to systematically factor the external environment into their planning activities. Conference activities focused on identifying critical trends that define the context within which programs in U.S. land-grant institutions will function in the coming decade; identifying potential events that could affect extension, research, and teaching; developing elementary scenarios portraying the impact of critical events on programs in land-grant institutions; and drafting issue briefs of issues and emerging issues facing programs in land-grant institutions.
Fourth DIVERSE International Conference on Video and Videoconferencing in Education
28-30 June 2004, Amsterdam, Netherlands
This conference was a premier event on all aspects of video and videoconferencing in educationteaching, research, management-including the convergence of these technologies with online technologies, and the emergence of new possibilities such as telepresence learning and teaching, interactive television, computer games techniques, and wireless and handheld access to live or archived moving images. DIVERSE was both a showcase and a critical forum on all aspects of video in education using plenary and themed parallel sessions. Major presentations are now available via webcasts. James L. Morrison's keynote address based upon an article published earlier in On the Horizon was titled "Higher Education in Transition: Lessons from the American Experience."
23-26 May 2004, Wailea, Maui, HI
The theme of the Western Association of College and University Business Officers for this year's program, Riding the Waves of Change, spoke to the realities college business officers face today: funding sources are drying up, endowments have suffered several years of less than stellar returns, and tuition increases are the norm. This conference focused on how we might change the way we do business in order to adapt to the changes taking place in the environment. In one of the general sessions, James L. Morrison's general session presentation, "The University is Dead! Long Live the University!", illuminated the driving forces that are creating change and speculated on what these forces imply for higher education in the coming decade.
18-20 July 2003, San Francisco, CA
The 2003 World Future Society's Annual
Conference focused on 21st century opportunities and challenges, with sessions on futures, environment, learning/education, globalization, values,
economics, governance, science/technology, society, health, and business. In addition, other activities and special events included free career counseling, a forum for professional futurists, and preconference seminars, one of which is offered by James Morrison on futurizing your
Corporate Universities @ Work: Achieving Success in Business and
20-23 October 2002, Washington, DC
This conference, organized by Corporate University Exchange (CUX), focused on such topics as creating strategic learning partnerships between public and private sectors, developing blended learning solutions to build leadership skills, leveraging e-learning to build workforce competencies, and shifting the focus from training to performance. The Technology Source's editor-in-chief, James Morrison, led a "Birds of a Feather" lunch session on the corporate university section of the journal on Tuesday, October 22, from 12:30 to 1:30. CUX offered a registration discount to TS subscribers if they informed the CUX conference organizer, Christine Schmidt, that they were subscribers.
20-22 July 2002, Philadephia, PA
The 2002 World Future Society's Annual Conference continued the tradition of a "World's Fair of Ideas," with sessions on the environment, new technologies, social change, public policy, economics and finance, and futures methodologies. In addition, numerous other activities and special events were offered, including free career counseling, a forum for the Society's professional members, and preconference courses, one of which was led by James Morrison on futurizing your organization. James Morrison also presented a lecture titled, "The University is Dead. Long Live the University!" This presentation was offered as a free webcast on Thursday, July 25, 2002, courtesy of ULiveandLearn, who established a discussion forum to continue the discussion generated by the webcast. On Tuesday, September 24, a second webcast was conducted around a manuscript developed from the original presentation. This manuscript is available for "active discussion" at Quick Topic Document Review; a refined version of the manuscript titled, "U.S. Higher Education in Transition" was published in On the Horizon. The Spanish translation was published in Uni-pluri/versidad, Vol 3 No.1. An interview based on the presentation was published in the Spring, 2003 issue of The Futures Research Quarterly.
Missouri Distance Learning Association Annual Conference
16 July 2001, Jefferson City, MO
This conference focused on designing distance learning courses, resources that may be used in such courses, and distance learning standards. The keynote, by James Morrison, titled "The Future of Distance Learning," described the driving forces that will affect education and distance learning in the coming decade and focused on the implications of these forces for education and distance learning.
Second Annual CiTE Conference
The Evolution of eLearning: Educational Technology for this Generation and the Next
7-9 March 2001, Denver, CO
This conference, sponsored by the Center for Internet Technology in Education (CiTE), focused on the growing impact of educational technology on the learning process and on institutions. Numerous changes have taken place in the field of eLearning, from new ways distance education is being delivered to integrating technology on campus and in the classroom. Participants examined how to use educational technology today and how to plan for future uses. A featured session consisted of a panel of five leading technology magazine editors who discussed how education and technology have changed in recent years, how they see the future, and how their thoughts from the past have already changed in the wake of current technology trends and innovations. Panel members included Bernard Percy, Converge; Julia Rudy, Educause Quarterly; Mary Grush, Syllabus; James L. Morrison, The Technology Source; and Wendy LaDuke, T.H.E. Journal Magazine.
eLearning Strategy Summit
How Colleges and Universities Can Thrive Online
5-7 December 2000, Orlando, FL
Welcome to the brave new world of the Internet, where the explosive growth of telecommunications has enabled new distance learning opportunities, as well as new risks. To fully exploit the advantages of technology-mediated education, schools must redefine almost every aspect of their strategy, from their educational mission and intended student audience to their business models and pedagogical goals. The purpose of this conference was to explore how to evaluate and adopt the best practices in online learning and how to take advantage of Internet-enabled opportunities. The presentations were as follows: James Morrison, The University is Dead, Long Live the University!
LeBaron Woodyard, "Three Words to Put You on the Road to Success in the World of E-Learning: 'Good Student Services'"
Paul Meyers, "Countdown to Launch: Assessing Institutional Preparedness for an Online Program"
Philip DiSalvio, "Getting What You Want: Building the Right Strategic Technological Partnerships for Your Online Campus"
Edward Lieblein, "Pitfalls and Pointers for Developing Successful Online Programs"
Jack Goetz, "The Virtual Law School: Better Connections, Better Retention"
Edward L. McGlone, "The Three A's of the New Millenium: Accreditation, Accountability, and Assessment"
Paul LeBlanc, "Licensure and Accreditation Case Study: Do's and Don'ts for Nontraditional Educators"
Ed Klonoski, "E-Lobbying: Selling E-Learning to Your Legislature"
Joanne Clark, "Financial Aid for Distance Education Students: Lessons Learned"
Bracey Campbell, "Business Model Case Study 1 - Southern Regional Education Board's Electronic Campus: Can You Afford Not to be Involved in Distance Learning?"
Robert Manuel, "Economics 201: Resource and Risk Management"
Anita Reach, "Teacher Training and Retention in the Heartland"
Pam Pease, "Business Model Case Study 2 - Jones International University"
Bill Rosenthal, "Business Modeal Case Study 3 - KaplanCollege.Com"
The Flight of Future Days
Preparing for 2039
20 October 2000, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA
In the year 2039, when the Virginia Military Institute marks its bicentennial, the world will look much different than it does today. As future generations of VMI cadets become leaders in their chosen fields, what new challenges will they face? On October 20, 2000, VMI hosted the 2000 symposium that examined issues that will soon challenge not only these students but also their teachers as both groups prepare to meet the decades ahead. Students and teachers alike will need not only to make sense of these changes but also to direct them to serve the needs of our nation and of our world. The title of James Morrison's presentation was "Academic Publishing in the 21st Century."
23-25 July 2000, Houston, TX
The theme of the World Future Society's 2000 Annual Conference was "FutureFocus 2000: Changes, Challenges & Choices." In discussions, workshops, and informal interactions, participants grappled with the important issues facing us as we enter the next millennium. The program was a "World's Fair of Ideas," with sessions on business, education, new technologies, social change, public policy, economics, finance, and futures methodologies. The preconference professional development program included a workshop led by Ian Wilson and James Morrison on futurizing your organization.
Association for Institutional Research Annual Forum
Information for the Next 100 Years
21-24 May 2000, Cincinnati, OH
The theme of the 40th Annual AIR Forum comprised both the what of information (what we will need and want to know over the next century) and the how of information (how information will be generated, acquired, managed, stored, shared, and used). The conference agenda included a preconference professional development workshop on environmental scanning, which James Morrison facilitated.
Demographics Shape the Future of Higher Education
18-19 May 2000, Georgetown University Conference Center, Washington, DC
Changing demographics and the increased demand for lifelong learning will have a significant impact on higher education in the decades to come. What changes will colleges and universities have to make in programs, services, organizational structure and function in order to remain viable in the 21st century? This conference examined the effect of the external environment on colleges and universities and what your institution can do to respond to the growing number of adult and nontraditional students in need of further education. James Morrison led a workshop titled Environmental Scanning in the Strategic Planning Process, which was designed to assist educational leaders in meeting the challenges of the future.
Visions for the Future
Academic Collective Bargaining in 2020
20-21 March 2000, Baruch College Conference Center, New York, NY
The National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the Professions 28th annual conference focused on the future of academic collective bargaining. James Morrison's plenary presentation, "A Futurist Looks at Higher Education," focused on the driving forces that will affect the way we work in the academy in the 21st century.
2000 Community College Futures Assembly
29 January - 1 February 2000, Caribe Royale Resort Suites and Villas at Lake Buena Vista, Orlando, FL
The purpose of this assembly was to serve as an independent National Policy Forum to convene key opinion leaders to work as a "think tank" in identifying critical issues facing the future of community colleges. The Assembly also recognized selected Bellwether Finalist colleges as trendsetting institutions who share the lessons they have learned with participants. The conference agenda provides links to discussion groups, general sessions, and other activities (e.g., preconference workshops like the one that James Morrison conducted, titled "Anticipating the Future of Community Colleges: Linking External Analysis to Internal Decision Making").
College Students 2000
The Impact of Adult and Nontraditional Students on American Campuses Today and in the Future
6-7 December 1999, Capital Hilton Hotel, Washington, DC
What changes will colleges and universities have to make in programs,
services, organizational structure and function in order to remain viable in the 21st century? The College Board in this important new national conference, College Students 2000, examined the impact of demographic, economic, technological, and societal factors on colleges and universities and what your institution can do to respond to the growing numbers of adult and nontraditional students in need of further education. James Morrison presented a keynote address, The Road Ahead for Higher Education.
Society for College and University Planning Southeast Regional Conference
Crossroads 2000: Looking
11-12 November 1999, Sheraton Center, Raleigh, NC
Institutions are challenged as never before by increasing competition, accountability pressures, demographic changes, new providers, different delivery systems, technological advancements and an ever more rapid rate of change. The SCUP regional conference served as a catalyst for sharing new ideas and creative thinking as we attempt to balance our resources among the ever-increasing resources needs for instruction, research, technology, and facilities. The conference agenda included a preconference workshop, "Linking External Analysis to Internal Decision-Making," which James Morrison facilitated.
Learning, Teaching, and Technology
13-15 October 1999, Myrtle Beach, SC
This regional conference, sponsored by the Association for Applied Interactive Multimedia, brought together distance education and technology faculty and staff, administrators, resource and support persons, technology planners and technicians to discuss imperative technology and distance education issues. James Morrison gave one of the keynote presentations.
The Impact of Technology on Teaching, Learning, and Research
1-4 August 1999, Sheraton at Waterside, Norfolk, VA
The theme of the 1999 28th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Association for Community College Research 28th was: Technology has substantially changed the way community colleges do business, and it is beginning to change not only the way they conduct research but the very fundamentals of the teaching/learning process itself. How do community colleges stay abreast in a world where Technology evolves at a rapid and bewildering pace? What strategies do they employ to remain on the cutting edge of technology? How can they afford the high price tag of technology? How has technology changed institutional research in community colleges? How has it changed teaching and learning? These are just a few of the questions that were raised at the conference. The conference featured keynote addresses by James Morrison, Professor of Education at the University of North Carolina, and editor of On the Horizon and The Technology Source, on August 2nd, and by Dr. Arnold Oliver, Chancellor of the Virginia Community College System, on August 3rd. In addition to his keynote address, Dr. Morrison conducted a half-day workshop on how technology will shape teaching, learning, and research in 21st century community colleges. Dr. Morrison's presentation and workshop was sponsored in part by SCT Corporation.
Creating and Sustaining Learning Communities
Connections, Collaboration, and Crossing Borders
10-13 March 1999, Holiday Inn Busch Gardens, Tampa, FL
The focus of this conference was on innovative learning community models, interdisciplinary themes, and methodologies for assessing student learning and learning community programs. Conference papers, presentations, and presenters' biographical sketches may be reviewed in the conference program. Our objective was for participants to be able to review papers prior to the conference so that the conference itself could be
Georgia Distance Learning Association Conference
5 November 1998, Georgia Public Broadcasting Building, Atlanta, GA
The Georgia Distance Learning Association (GDLA) is a non-profit association formed to promote the development and application of distance learning for education and training.
GDLA is a state chapter of the United States Distance Learning Association. This inaugural event was supported by Simon & Schuster Distributed Learning in association with the
Enhancing Student Services Through Technology
Michigan Community College Student Services Association
14-16 October 1998, Park Place Hotel, Traverse City, MI
Think back to how we did business ten years ago. Now, think about how we do business
today--many changes have taken place and most are due to the increased use of technology. We now accept that changes in technology are constant and provide us with real opportunities for enhancements in student services. Our challenge now is to determine the directions that new technology will take us in the next ten years.
Distance Education: Our Bridge to the Future
The South Carolina Alliance 2020 Distance Education Conference
25-27 March 1998, Myrtle Beach Hilton, Myrtle Beach, SC
Alliance 2020 is a Kellogg Foundation funded project involving two land-grant universities
and the two-year college system in South Carolina. Alliance 2020 has among its goals
strengthening and expanding telecommunications networks among the partner institutions to serve the needs of South Carolina citizens and their increased access to postsecondary
education. This Distance Education Conference was also sponsored by the Innovative Technical Training Program of the South Carolina Technical Education System.
Multimedia in the Classroom
A One-Day Conference for Faculty Members and Administrators
31 October 1997, Hays Theatre, Wilbur Arts Center, Molloy College, Rockville Centre, NY
Multimedia in the classroom was part of Molloy College's "Faculty of the
Future" initiative. This project was intended to train Molloy's faculty to explore and
utilize sophisticated software programs that integrate video, graphics, sound, the World
Wide Web, communications, database management, CD-ROMs, and more into seamless teaching packages. The ultimate aim of this project was to transform higher education through the skillful use of technological advances. Students will benefit both from the data they take in and from the experience of receiving knowledge. James Morrison's presentation was titled, "Teaching and Learning in the 21st Century."
Reinventing Higher Education: Using Technology, Reengineering, and Competitive Business Strategies to Reposition Colleges and Universities for the 21st Century
A Two-Day Conference with Pre- and Post-Conference Workshops
23-24 June 1997, Four Seasons Hotel, Philadelphia, PA
The technology is galloping ahead of all of us, higher education included. Welfare
reform demands that we pay attention to retraining as a society. The population of high
school graduates prepared (both academically and financially) to pursue a four-year degree continues to be demographically unstable while the costs of administration and faculty continue to rise. Corporate and individual adult students are increasingly interested in convenience, preferring courses delivered by various means to them at their location
rather than to travel to campus. Demands from short term fixes will not create the kind of future our institutions want and deserve. Colleges and universities must rethink their mission, and build new systems to efficiently deliver quality education to a changing marketplace.
Realigning Your Organization to Learning in the Information Age
An International Collaborative Workshop
27-30 July 1996, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland
Transforming Higher Education
An International Collaborative Workshop
24-26 July 1996, Lincoln University, Christchurch, New Zealand
This workshop, led by Donald Norris and James Morrison, was an opportunity to apply the
principles described in Transforming Higher Education: A Vision for Learning in the
21st Century (Dolence and Norris, 1995) to your learning enterprise. This was a
hands-on workshop using practical examples and cases studies of transformation in academic programs, facilities, and the academic culture. Workshop format included a combination of collaboration, workshop activity, and consultation.
Sixth Global Change Strategic Management Seminar
Issues Challenging Education
10-15 June 1996, St. Andrews University, St. Andrews, Scotland
The Sixth Global Change Strategic Management Seminar on Issues Challenging Education
was a response to the ongoing world wide redefinement of the roles and responsibilities for
education in an information age. The economic context and the allocation of resources will
surely change. Technological developments in telecommunications and computers will
transform the way we live and workand educatein the 21st Century. Exactly what these
differences will be, and how they will evolve, is anybody's guess. One thing is certain:
the only way any educational organization will come out a winner is if it is prepared (for
changes in its clientele and market), imaginative (in its repositioning strategy), and
proactive (in its execution).
Meeting the Challenges of Global Change: Planning for the Future of Education
The Fifth Global Change Strategic Management Seminar
28-31 July 1995, St. Andrews University, St. Andrews, Scotland
The Fifth Global Change Strategic Management Seminar was a response to the ongoing
world-wide redefinement of the roles and responsibilities for education in an information
age. The economic context and the allocation of resources will surely change.
Technological developments in telecommunications and computers will transform the way we live and workand educatein the 21st Century. Exactly what these differences will be,
and how they will evolve, is anybody's guess. One thing is certain: the only way any
educational organization will come out a winner is if it is prepared (for changes in its
clientele and market), imaginative (in its repositioning strategy), and proactive (in its
Beyond 2000: Visioning the Future of Community Colleges
The 1995 Inaugural Futures Assembly
26-28 February 1995, Orlando, FL
We are being bombarded by tumultuous forces for change as we go into the 21st Century:
Virtual classrooms, global communications, global economies, telecourses, distance
learning, corporate classrooms, increased competition among social agencies for scarce
resources, pressure for institutional mergers, state-wide program review and so on. In
order to plan effectively in this environment, community college leaders must be able to
anticipate new developments on their institutions and curricular programs.